Information, from a broad perspective, is structured, processed and organised information that has an effect on our thinking. It gives context to data and enables effective decision making by the people who use it. For instance, a single consumer’s sale in a restaurant is information this becomes data when the company is able to identify which food is the most popular or lowest priced. Similarly, the output of a factory is information. The information about the products or services produced can be stored or processed. It also determines how successful the process has been or not.
With the increase in information technology and consequent information processing, an entire new discipline emerged, namely information science. This discipline studies how computers and databases are organised and coordinated. Many industries, for instance banking, medicine, finance and retail, have information technology departments. Some of the main areas of focus in information science include databases management, computer systems, cognitive science, e-commerce, internet and web-based technologies, and IT risk management.
One of the major activities in information science is developing a database management software that helps businesses store, query, and analyse information. Database management software includes software for desktop and web-based applications and is used to manage a large amount of information. A typical database management software may include object-oriented programming (OOP), a programming language that allows developers to define and use objects (class, object type, and field), classes, and relations. In object-oriented programming, objects are accessed by names or addresses rather than by keywords. OOP languages are object-oriented programming’s best bet for creating database management software because they allow developers to construct the application in a fashion similar to an HTML or Java application.
Another important aspect in database management software is designing, developing and maintaining the network infrastructure. Major IT firms such as IBM, Microsoft, Cisco and Sun Microsystems hire IT professionals with expertise in network security, firewall applications, computer-related technologies, and database management software. Some of the companies that post information technology jobs include Apple, Microsoft, Cisco, Accenture, Bain, Booz and Co, Citrix, EMC America, Kaspersky Lab, IBM, PayPal, Sun Microsystems, IBM ThinkPad, Symantec and VMWare.
Another major area of information technology employment is software development. Application development refers to the integration of software into a specific operating system and hardware to enhance the functionality of an application. For example, Microsoft Windows is used for desktop applications and Apple Macintosh for the laptop computer. In the software development environment, software developers work with hardware engineers, marketing managers, quality assurance professionals and system designers to determine an information technology application’s functionality and suitability.
The last major field of work in information technology employment is N f de la informaci n (N La in IT). It means “general IT” or “all IT”. It encompasses all aspects of information technology, including network management, server management, information security, software development and consulting. A person who specializes in N la in IT is called a N La in IT (nantris tertiary in IT). An example of this position is a Networking Manager, which holds the title of Information Technology Infrastructure Manager.